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Sunni point of view about Caliphate

Sunni point of view about Caliphate

The Caliphate and Imamate is one of the most important topic that needs to be discussed.  In this article we will have a short look at the Sunni Point of view about Caliphate then we will our brief commentary on it.

As we have mentioned earlier that if someone wants to make research about Shia-Sunni ideology, Caliphate or successorship of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) is one of the most important topic.

Sunni point of view about Caliphate says that Prophet Mohammad did not appoint anybody as caliph or successor. Please also read the narration from Sahih Muslim which explains the Sunni point of view that The Holy Prophet didn't appoint anybody as his successor.

The companions of the prophet gathered on one place called Saqifa. They selected Abu Bakar as their Caliph. When Abu Bakar was about to die, he appointed second caliph Omar bin Khattab. When Omar bin Khattab was close to his death, he made a committee of 6 members and he made one person Abdul Rahman bin O'oaf as the head of that committee, wherein he was suppose to choose one a Calpih. He chose the third caliph Usman among the members of the committee (Shura).

After the murder of third caliph, there was no caliph, the elder companions of the prophet came to Imam Ali ibne Abu Talib and asked him to take over the Government. Imam Ali took over the Government and became the 4th caliph.

There is no appointment made by Prophet Mohammad about Abu Bakar, Omar and Usman. In the gathering of Saqifa, the group of Mohajarin wanted to have the Caliph from them, Ansar wanted to have caliph from them. Later on they decided that the Caliph will be from Mohajareen and the Ministers will be from Ansar. (Bukhari-chapter virtues of Abu Bakar)

In the gathering of Saqifa, Abu Bakar did not claim any hadith about himself that prophet made him as his successor. Abu Bakar announced that make your Caliph Omar bin Khattab or Abu Obaidah bin Jarah (Bukhari).

Omar bin Khttab described the situation at Saqifa and said that Abu Bakar's selection was made suddenly in the emmergency situation.

Please read the hadith from Bukhari, (Please click on the picture, it will open the online link)

(This is also an interesting hadith wherein Omar bin Khttab states that verse of rajam is missing from the Holy Quran).

Sunni School of thought claims that these four caliphs are the righteous caliphs. The whole Muslim Ummah should follow these four caliphs. The Sunni movements claim that we should impose Caliphate over the whole world because this caliphs are role Model for them.

There are many valid questions on the Sunni point of view about Caliphate. We are hoping that our Sunni brothers will pay attention on those questions and will try to find the satisfactory answers.

How come Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) did not appoint anybody as his successor?

If we will say that it was not needed, then why the companions of the prophet got together soon after the death of prophet to make someone as a caliph? They even left the dead body of the prophet unburied and finished the matter of Caliphate (Tabari and others).

Does it mean that the selection of the next leader was very important matter to the point that it becomes even more important for them than burying the dead body of the prophet?

If the answer is yes, it was an important matter: then why the Prophet (pbuh) did not address this matter? It brings an objection to Prophet Mohammad that he did not take care much about his nation?

While the actual situation is very different! This is proven that Prophet Mohammad in his last days, he was very sick, (this narration is also in Bukhari) the Prophet appointed Osama bin Zaid as the commander of Islamic army. (Osama bin Zaid was a young man, Abu Bakar and Omar were also included in that army under his command) whenever the prophet used to get little bit better, he used to ask about that army if that army is gone already?

Please find the proof here from Bukhari.

The companions of the prophet hesitated to join under the command of Osama; the Prophet(pbuh) got angry and told his companions to join Osama's army and they must go. In the history books it says that the Prophet cursed on those people who hesitated to join the army of Osama!

(Actually Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) wanted to send those people outside of Medina, those who wanted to form their own government after prophet's death).

Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) used to take care of his nation so much; we have already given an example. In the example we can also see that the prophet put Abu Bakar and Omar under the command of a young person named Osama bin Zaid. How come the Prophet would make Abu Bakar as the commander of all Muslims?

The whole life of Prophet Mohammad testifies that Prophet Mohammad used to appoint the head of tribes, head of groups, even whenever he used to send few people; he used to make sure that there is one person who will lead the group.

It was very important for Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) to appoint the head of his nation to save them from any kind of destruction and divisions.

By that time Islamic Govt. was newly formed. There were lots of anti- Islamic forces who wanted to destroy Islam, for example there were lots of hypocrites, many verses in Quran tell us about them.

“Some of the desert dwelling Arabs around you are hypocrites as are some of the inhabitants of Medina. They are persisting in their hypocrisies. You do not know them but we know them well and will punish them twice over. Then they will be brought to the great torment (on the Day of Judgment)."

Quran 9:101

There were Jews; there were Romans and Iranian empires wanted to destroy this newly formed Government in Arab region.

It looks to the peope that Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) had no political vision (astaghferullah) if we believe that he did not appoint anybody after him.

We know in the entire human history that all the supreme leaders and head of the nations appointed someone to be the leader after them. Even for example somebody who has goats and sheep, he would make some arrangement to lookafter them before his death! 

If we believe that Prophet Mohammad did not appoint anybody after him. It means that Prophet Mohammad did not have vision like a common person (astaghferullah).

The first prophet and first human being on the face of this earth, the father of humanity ADAM (as) appointed his son Sheeth after him. (History books tabari, History of ibne kathir etc). Please check the proof here from Tabari in Urdu that Prophet Adam appointed his son Sheeth as successor and handed over his Govt. to him.

Please also check the proofs here from the history from Tanari in Urdu from the first image that Prophet Yaàqoob as appointed his son Yousef as his successor. Prophet Yousef appointed his brother Yahowa as his successor and handed over Govt. to him (Yahowa was not a Prophet).

Prophet Moses(pbuh) went to Mount Sinai for forty nights. He appointed his brother Aron, to be the leader of his nation. (Quran)

How come the Prophet of Islam who left his nation forever but did not appoint anybody to be the leader of his nation after him? While Prophet Mohammad did not have an accidental death!

Sometimes Sunni fellows make lame excuses that actually the Holy Prophet said my Ummah will not unite on evil things, that's why The Prophet (pbuh) did not appoint anybody as his successor. This contradicts with the ground realities.

We would like to ask a simple questions from the Sunni fellows: Did Ummah unite under the Caliphate of Imam Ali? The answer is " No". Hazrat Ayesha had war with Imam Ali and Moawiya had long war and remained rebellious to Imam Ali, how come Sunni fellows announced Imam Ali as thier 4th righeteous Caliph?. It goes against theory because the Ummah was not united!

We know that after the martyrdom of Imam Ali , Muslim Ummah was under the command of Moawiya bin Abu Sufyan. Why not our Sunni fellows declare Moawiya as a righteous Caliph?

If this is a standard that Ummah won't unite on the evil then Moawiya, Yazid and all the bad rulers must be decalred as the righteous Caliphs !

The above mentioned theory also contradicts with the other proven narrations in Bukhari and Muslim. Please read the narartion here from Bukhari which says that The Prophet (pbuh) him warned his Companions that after me you will have the greed of Govt and you will regret at the Day of Judgement! How come The Prophet (pbuh) left his Companions on their own for the greed of Govt?

We know very well that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) who guided with revelation knew very well that what is going to happen after him. The Holy Prophet warn his companions that many afflications will happen after him, 

Please check the chapter of Afflication in sahih Al Bukhari. It means that the Prophet (pbuh) did not make any arrangement to save the nation?

Please find same example here Narrations about Companions of the Prophet (Sahaba) in Bukhari 

Please find some more narrations in Muslims Companions of the Prophet (Sahaba) knowingly changed the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet

We see some more interesting things. When Abu Bakar was closed to his death, he appointed Umar bin Khattab (the one who worked hard to give Government to Abu Bakar).

Why not Abu Bakar acted upon the Sunnah of Prophet Mohammad? Did Abu Bakar has more vision than  Prophet Mohammad ?

Another interesting thing: when Umar bin Khattab was near to death, his son Abdullah bin Umar came to him and told him if somebody has goats and sheeps, he makes the arrangement for them. He asked him to make some arrangement for the people who will be incharge after him.

Please read the narration in Sahih Muslim, Umar bin Khattab made 6 members committee and made one person head to choose the caliph.

We can also see that Umar bin Khattab did not act upon the Sunnah of Prophet. Was Umar bin Khattab smarter than holy Prophet Mohammad (astaghferullah)?

As Sunni fellows say that the Prophet did not make anybody as his Caliph. It proves Abu Bakar and Omar both did not follow the Sunnah of the Prophet and also looks to others that both were samarter than the Prophet! (astaghferullah)

Our Sunni brothers propagates that the Caliphate of these four caliphs is the symbol of righteousness and we should impose it to the whole world.

 The question arises here what is the foundation of this Caliphate? What is the principle for this Caliphate?

Is this based on appointment by the Holy Prophet? Did the Prophet appoint those caliphs? The answer is no.

Is this based on selection committee? The answer is no, the Prophet did not make any committee to choose the caliphs.

Is this based on public election? The answer is no. Only some people gathered in Saqifa, left the Holy Prophet's body un-buried. They divided this power between them.

It is proven that companions of the Prophet were not there; the Banu Hashim family of the Prophet, Imam Ali and other prominent personalities were not there!

All other Muslim tribes living outside of Medina and other areas did not know anything about it, they were just forced to accept it and follow it. This was not based on public election.

As we have mentioned that second and third caliph was made with the different criteria. There is no criteria and no principal which could tell us about the foundation of this Caliphate!

In the narration of Bukhari which we have given earlier, Someone said if Omar will die. I will announce myself as a caliph (as per Abu Baker and Omar did).

Omar bin Khattab announced in his statement if somebody will announce such Caliphate and anybody who give pledge of allegiance to him. Both will be killed.

We can see that there is no criteria and no principle of this Caliphate. We can imagine how it was imposed on others and forcefully it was made acceptable.

It is proven that these Caliphs were not appointed by Prophet Mohammad (pbuh), how come they can be called as successor of Prophet Mohammad?

For example The American people chose George Bush as their president! How come Bush could be the successor of Jesus? Bush and Obama can't be the successor of Jesus because Jesus didn't appoint them!

There is a Hadith in Sunni source, the Sunni scholars consider it as a true hadith.  This hadith is narrated in Sunan Abu Dawood, Ibne Maja and others. The Holy Prophet said “You must then follow my Sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs".

Our Sunni brothers recite this hadith day and night. They do not tell the complete hadith which says after me you will fall in to afflictions, you obey your ruler even he would be a black African, You must then follow my Sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.”

Our Sunni fellows do not have exact clue about who are those rightly-guided Caliphs. It is clearly mentioned in the above hadith that there will be afflictions, rulers and rightly-guided Caliphs.

Please find some more narrations about the rulers after the Holy Prophet and Caliphs of the Holy Prophet in Sahih Muslim.

When the Holy Prophet recommended following the rightly-guided caliphs, it was his responsibility of the Prophet to introduce those caliphs. At least the Prophet must introduce that system which could produce those rightly-guided caliphs.

Sunni point of view says the opposite of this hadith the prophet did not appoint any successor. Those caliphs also never mentioned anything about themselves that the prophet made them as a successor. Those Caliphs got government accidentally; anybody could take over the Government at Saqifa and after. It is so strange that those Caliphs got the authority to change the Sharia law. Please read our other articles and research work on Bukhari and Muslim.

Those Caliphs which are mentioned by the prophet must have adequate knowledge about the Quran and Sunnah and must not perform against Quran and Sunnah because the Holy Prophet ordered to follow them as His own Sunnah! 

(Those rightly-guided Caliphs are the 12 successors of the messenger of Allah. We will talk about them in our next articles.)

Our Sunni brothers need to think over it, the second Caliph Omar bin Khattab who was not appointed by God nor by the Prophet, why did he change the Sharia Law? There are many examples that Omar changed the Sunnah of the Prophet and not accepted the Quranic orders. Please check the narrations from Bukhari and Muslim how Omar bin Khattab performed against the Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet.

We find above mentioned caliphs vs Quran and Sunnah. Our Sunni brothers and sisters really need to figure out who are those rightly-guided caliphs. The Prophet recommended for us, follow them as we are supposed to follow the Sunnah of holy Prophet.

If the rightly-guided caliphs of our Sunni brothers would not follow Quran and Sunnah then who will follow it?

How come our Sunni brothers are still claiming that Omar bin Khattab as a rightly-guided caliph? even he changed the Quranic laws !

The verse of Holy Quran (4:59) “O you, who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you.” If we will get the definition and interpretation of any Sunni school of thought, Imam Ali is the one of that person which Quran mentions(the person having authority).

We know that Ayesha (wife of the Prophet) and Moawiya had two separate wars with Imam Ali, thousands of people got killed. According to any definition and interpretation by Sunnis, Imam Ali is one of those rightly-guided Caliph and the person of authority.

Do our Sunni brothers declare that these people did not follow the order of the Quran?

If somebody fights with the first caliph Abu Bakar, what is Sunni's opinion about him?

If that person is a kafir then what if somebody fights with the 4th caliph that person should be kafir or at least rebel of Islamic Govt. But our Sunni brothers do not apply this standard on those people who fought with their 4th Caliph.

When we try to make analysis about Sunni point of view, unfortunately we do not find any principle or foundation about it. It does not fit on standards of Quran and hadith not even on logic.

Shia point of view about Caliphate-Imamate is very logical and according to Quran and Hadith. Please find our next articles about it.

May Allah(swt) guide those who seek for truth and send blessings to holy Prophet Mohammad(PBUH) and his Ahlalbait

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